Material can be found on the course website.

The questions on the "closed book" (i.e., no course material may be used) exam will be a selection from those given below. Note that some of those questions are "parametrized": they represent a family of questions (as in "explain the semantics of Statechart construct X").

Questions:

- Causal Block Diagrams

Example question: explain how algebraic loop detection can give different results at different times*i*during a discrete-time CBD simulation.Example question: Explain how a continuous-time CBD Integrator/Derivative block can be approximated in terms of a discrete-time CBD network.

- Petri Nets

In particular, the different types of analysis one can do on Petri Net models. Above all, how to construct the Coverability Tree !Example question: what is the relationship between deadlock and reachability analysis?

Example question: for the following Petri Net model (given), build the coverability graph and explain whether the system is L

`n`live.Example question: give the algorithm for building a coverability graph (or tree). Explain by means of a small example. What is the difference between a reachability and a coverability graph ?

What is the difference between LTL and CTL, what does a particular formula mean?

- Statecharts

Type of question: explain the semantics of Statechart construct X (for example history vs. deep history). The question may also be in the form of a small Statechart of which you need to explain the semantics (behaviour).

- DEVS

The formalism, and in particular, the construction of an Atomic DEVS model from a Coupled DEVS model through flattening.Example question: describe how to obtain the internal transition function of the flattened version of a coupled DEVS.

- Hierarchy of System Specification

p. 1 - 9 (NOT Structured Specifications)The different levels of system specification and their relationship. In particular, the I/O System specification.

Example question: give the mathematical structure of the I/O System specification. Explain briefly the various symbols. Explain the constraint the transition function must satisfy.

Example question: give the mathematical structure of the I/O System specification. Explain briefly the various symbols. Show how an I/O Function can be obtained from this.

- Forrester System Dynamics

Explain the System Dynamics workflow.

What is the semantics of the FSD notation (flows and rates)?

- The Big Picture: formalism properties table.