Challenges: Isomorphic mappings and exponential explosion

If we combine generalizatons with associations in a class diagram, this can lead to N^2 relationships after the translation to ER formalism: (Where N is the number of class)

Result in ER:

Explanation of the Semantics:

Since the parent can be related to any class of type "superclass", then every instance can be related to every other instance since every class is of type "superclass". In other words everybody is of type "superclass" and "superclass" is related to itself so we must have N^2 relationships.

Solution: ATOM3's hyper-edges!

Result in ER:

We must add one constraint... Still need to discuss it with Hans! :))